harappa civilization city construction [HISTORY] ENGLISH 10

                               



Harappan Civilization: - City Construction - 1

- City planning was the main feature of the Harappan civilization.


- There was uniformity in city construction at almost all places.


- Most of the cities of civilization were settled on the banks of rivers.


- Fixed plans have been followed in city construction.


- The use of concrete bricks was a common feature in building construction.


- Often the division of cities was two-tier. However, one-tier and three-tier cities were also known.


* Harappan Civilization: - City Construction-2

- There was a good arrangement of roads in each city, the main road was 10 meters and the streets were 2.75 to 1.8 meters wide.


- There was a good drainage system in each city, there was a drain covering one to two feet deep. Evidence of drainage system is not found only at sites like Banawali. Evidence of wooden drains has been found from Kalibanga.


* Political structure


- There is no concrete information but well planned city building measurement weighing system etc. indicates that there must have been a central system.

It is universally held that the governance should have been close to the classes, because every activity of the Harappan civilization was closer to commercial activities than war.


* Economy - 1


- It is known from the excavation of Harappan civilization that both agriculture and trade were in advanced stage.


- The plains built through the Indus and its tributaries were most favorable for the agricultural system in the agricultural sector. The forest wealth must have been very good, only then a large number of concrete bricks could be obtained.

* Economy - 2


- Ravi and Kharif crops were produced.


- At least 9 crops were produced, which did not contain ragi.


- The first evidence of cotton cultivation is found in this civilization.


- Agricultural work was done with wooden pointed hollows. However, no proof of direct solution has been found.

* Economy - 3


- Only in Bunwali, plow shaped toys have been found and shoes from the Harappan stage have been found from Kalibanga.


- The evidence of wheat and barley and the varieties of barley Herdium bulgare, hexa have been found.


- Annas must be taken as revenue from the farmers. The large granaries indicate this fact.

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