harappa civilization city construction [HISTORY] ENGLISH 10


Harappan Civilization: - City Construction - 1

- City planning was the main feature of the Harappan civilization.

- There was uniformity in city construction at almost all places.

- Most of the cities of civilization were settled on the banks of rivers.

- Fixed plans have been followed in city construction.

- The use of concrete bricks was a common feature in building construction.

- Often the division of cities was two-tier. However, one-tier and three-tier cities were also known.

* Harappan Civilization: - City Construction-2

- There was a good arrangement of roads in each city, the main road was 10 meters and the streets were 2.75 to 1.8 meters wide.

- There was a good drainage system in each city, there was a drain covering one to two feet deep. Evidence of drainage system is not found only at sites like Banawali. Evidence of wooden drains has been found from Kalibanga.

* Political structure

- There is no concrete information but well planned city building measurement weighing system etc. indicates that there must have been a central system.

It is universally held that the governance should have been close to the classes, because every activity of the Harappan civilization was closer to commercial activities than war.

* Economy - 1

- It is known from the excavation of Harappan civilization that both agriculture and trade were in advanced stage.

- The plains built through the Indus and its tributaries were most favorable for the agricultural system in the agricultural sector. The forest wealth must have been very good, only then a large number of concrete bricks could be obtained.

* Economy - 2

- Ravi and Kharif crops were produced.

- At least 9 crops were produced, which did not contain ragi.

- The first evidence of cotton cultivation is found in this civilization.

- Agricultural work was done with wooden pointed hollows. However, no proof of direct solution has been found.

* Economy - 3

- Only in Bunwali, plow shaped toys have been found and shoes from the Harappan stage have been found from Kalibanga.

- The evidence of wheat and barley and the varieties of barley Herdium bulgare, hexa have been found.

- Annas must be taken as revenue from the farmers. The large granaries indicate this fact.


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